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As shown in the graph, Mexico has * over double * number of Spanish speakers of any other countries.

Where is the correct place of definite article (the) in above sentence? I added asterisks as place holders for the definite articles.

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In this case you would put "the" before "number."

There are cases where a definite article comes before adverbs and adjectives, such as in the sentence:

Mexico has the most Spanish speakers of any country.

The way you determine where to put the definite article is by determining whether the noun requires a definite article without the modifiers.

Since you wouldn't say

Mexico has number of Spanish speakers

you need a definite article before the noun. If the noun doesn't require a definite article, as in the phrase:

Mexico has Spanish speakers

then you use a definite article to refer to the modifier itself, as in "Mexico has the most Spanish speakers."

So in your case, since "number" requires a definite article, you put it right before the noun.

Mexico has over double the number of Spanish speakers...

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    Thanks. I fear your answer is not clear enough. What is the pos of "over double"? As determiners usually come first, the question is when they do not come first. – PHPst Apr 25 '17 at 5:09

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