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Sentences I translated:

Have you found the key you lost yesterday? - Yes, I have. - Where have you found it? - It has been in my pocket.

The key says:

Have you found, lost; yes, I have; did you find; had been.

My point of view:

We are talking about current status, we don't know whether someone we are talking to has found the key, so Present Perfect (have you found) goes well here. This action was performed at a stated time - yesterday (lost), agree. The result or may be personal experience (yes, I have).

Going further, why Past Simple? We know he has find it, past completed action, it no longer interests her/him? If so, Past Perfect is acceptable and fits well, since this experice took place before the fact of its finding.

I know there were to many topics connected with this thematics but still.

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    Where did you find it? The finding of the key doesn't extend to the present moment. It happened and is over. But "Where have you been finding these excellent deals on T-shirts?" There the finding of good deals on T-shirts is recurrent and may continue into the future. – Tᴚoɯɐuo May 1 '17 at 10:50
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    It was in my pocket. It had been in my pocket all along. Cannot use present perfect because the being-in-the-pocket is being described as relative to the act of finding, which happened in the past. – Tᴚoɯɐuo May 1 '17 at 10:51
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In the second question we as asking about a particular action that occurred in the past. In particular we are asking about the location of that past action. We are not speaking of a time before some other action. So simple past: "Where did you find it?"

The last part you could either respond with the past simple "It was in my pocket" or (optionally) past perfect (It had been in my pocket) The past perfect is possible since we are referring to at time prior to the action of finding the key. The simple past is also acceptable as it descibes a past state. I would normally use the past simple "It was in my pocket" in this situation. (And so I disagree with the answer key on this point)

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