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I have learned that "as" can be used as a relative pronoun. However, in many American English grammar books, there was no examples in which "as" is used as a relative pronoun. Is "as" used in the following sentences a (pseudo) relative pronoun? In the following sentences, what is "as" grammatically?

    1. He is late, as is often the case with him.
    2. Tom was absent that day, as is often the case with him.
    3. Read such books as will be helpful.
    4. You should spend as much money as is necessary.
    5. This is the same watch as I lost.
    6. Additionally, when you consume too much protein, your body must remove more nitrogen waste products from your blood, which stresses your kidneys. Chronic dehydration can result, as was found in a study involving endurance athletes.
    1. Does "He is late, as is often the case with him" mean "He is late, which (=he is late) is often the case with him"?
    2. Does "Tom was absent that day, as is often the case with him" mean "Tom was absent that day, which (=tom was absent that day) is often the case with him" ?
    3. Does "Read such books as will be helpful" mean "Read such books that will be helpful"?
    4. Does "You should spend as much money as is necessary" mean "You should spend as much that is necessary"?
    5. Does "This is the same watch as I lost" mean "This is the same watch which I lost"?
    6. Does "Chronic dehydration can result, as was found in a study involving endurance athletes" mean "Chronic dehydration can result, which (=Chronic dehydration can result) was found in a study involving endurance athletes"?
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    More like an exam than a question. – Ash May 4 '17 at 5:43
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According to Oxford Dictionaries and Wiktionary.org, as is never a relative pronoun.

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