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In the two sentences:

"It is estimared that around one in five people have a sleep disorder of some kind, affecting their abilty to get enough sleep."

and

"The number of people suffering from malnutrition is increasing."

what is the justification for the comma in the former and for the absence of it in the second?To me,both are modifiers that should not be set off by commas. Thanks in advance.

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The comma in the first sentence marks the ger-ppl clause as a non-restrictive supplement, a new predication outside the predication in the main clause. The clause does not 'modify' anything: it comments on the main clause, equivalent to saying

... one in five people have a sleep disorder of some kind, and having a sleep disorder affects their ability to get enough sleep.

If there were no comma the ger-ppl clause would be understood to modify some kind. In this case it would taken as restrictive: the sentence would not be talking about all sleep disorders but only those which affect the ability to get enough sleep. This is a different matter: it leaves open the possibility that some people have a sleep disorder of a kind which does not affect the ability to get enough sleep.

Likewise the absence of a comma in the second sentence marks the ger-ppl clause as a restrictive modifier on people: the quantity which is said to be increasing is not the number of all people but of the number of [people with malnutrition].

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