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I was reading the case US v Virgina. https://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/94-1941.ZS.html

In Holding 2.(b)'s last sentence: The State's justification for excluding all women from "citizen soldier" training for which some are qualified, in any event, does not rank as "exceedingly persuasive."

I don't understand the structure of "The State's justification for excluding all women from citizen soldier training for which some are qualified". I don't know why it should be "for which some are qualified" rather than "which some are qualified".

I supposed the "which" here referred to "The State's justification for excluding all women from citizen soldier training", and they were trying to say some of "The state's .....training" are qualified. The "for" however, made me think that the "which" stood for "excluding all women from citizen soldier training", and they meant that some of "exlcuding..... training" were qualified for the State's justification.

I was really confused and It'd be helpful if anyone could explain it in both the grammatical and the cases' standpoint. Appreciated.

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The State's justification for excluding all women from "citizen soldier" training [for which some are qualified ____], in any event, does not rank as "exceedingly persuasive".

"For which" is a fronted relative phrase in the bracketed relative clause, but is just "which" that is anaphoric to an antecedent -- in this case the phrase "citizen soldier training".

The relativized element "which" is complement of the preposition "for" and together they form the preposition phrase "for which", which functions in the relative clause as complement of "qualified" -- represented by the gap '____' notation, as shown.

We understand that some (women) are qualified for citizen soldier training.

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The first definition of qualified in the Oxford Dictionary is relevant:

  1. Officially recognized as being trained to perform a particular job; certified.
    1.1 with infinitive Competent or knowledgeable to do something; capable.

When you talk about a qualified instructor, a qualified accountant, you are talking about somebody who is trained or certified to fulfil the obligations of the specified profession.

When you want to say whether somebody is suitable for a particular role or activity, you can either use to with a verb, or for with a noun:

What makes you think that you are qualified to do this job?
What makes you think that you are qualified for this job?

In the sentence you quote, the idea that they want to express is that

Some [women] are qualified for "citizen soldier" training, [so] the State's justification for excluding all women does not rank as "exceedingly persuasive."

When qualified is placed in a relative clause headed by which, it is necessary to move the for to before which.

for which some are qualified

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