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The recovery effort has begun but authorities are still not clear on just what damage and casu-alties they're dealing with. (ABC.net.au)

— used to refer to an amount that someone has, uses, etc. ▪ She gave what money she had [=she gave all the money she had] to the homeless man. ▪ Give what excuses you will—it makes no difference. [=no excuses that you may give will make any difference] ▪ He soon gambled away what(little) money he had left. ▪ We spent what (little) time remained chatting.

Merriam-Webster Learner's “what, adjective #3”

From the dictionary, I guess the OP means but authorities are still not clear on just as much damage and casualties as they’re dealing with. Is this right?

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Well, no. You have one of the right meanings of "what" for this context, but the correction you provided,

"but authorities are still not clear on just as much damage and casualties as they’re dealing with."

wouldn't be appropriate here. Generally, saying "as much __ as you __" does indicate that we're talking about an amount of something, but in this context the speaker is expressing that they don't have any idea what that quantity is. If we wanted to re-word the original sentence, we'd have a couple ways to do that:

The recovery effort has begun but authorities still don't know how much damage and how many casualties they're dealing with.

That would be an indicator of the fact that authorities are unsure of the degree of damage caused by Haiyan -- that is, how many roads and homes were destoryed, how many people killed, etc... Another possible understanding of what he's saying is,

The recovery effort has begun but authorities still don't know what kinds of damage and casualties they're dealing with.

This indicates that authorities are unsure of the nature of the damanged caused by Haiyan -- that is, whether or not there is any functioning public infrastructure remaining, if it's possible to transport goods around the area or not, if hospitals are able to function (that covers damage). As for casualties, it indicates that authorities don't know whether people have been killed, wounded, rendered homeless, orphaned, etc...

The most likely explanation, I think, is that the speaker means a combination of both meanings. It's hard to talk about the nature of damage and casualties without discussing the quantities. This is supported by the fact that the radio broadcast discusses both aspects (quantities and severity).

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