At an experimental agricultural station, many types of grass are grown ................. various conditions.

I figure out the answer is 'under'.

But I wanna know why cannot replace it other prepositions like 'underneath', 'below'

  • Try asking the same question with the phrase translated into your own language. Prepositions are idiosyncratic. – grateful May 30 '17 at 18:24
  • In my language, all the prepositions above here is represent same word. – jong-hyun Yeo May 30 '17 at 18:28
  • English prepositions behave idiosyncratically, especially (as here) when used non-centrally (central usages show locative, directional, and temporal relationships). It takes decades to master them. By then, new idiomatic usages have appeared. – Edwin Ashworth May 30 '17 at 18:38
  • If you are learning English you should be aware that "wanna" is not standard English and is an indication of lack of education. The verb is "want" and "to" is part of the infinitive of the verb following. – David May 30 '17 at 18:49
  • Under, below and underneath (and beneath) are certainly synonyms, but that doesn't mean that they can be interchanged at will. 'He was under/*underneath/*below/*beneath the weather.' / 'They are under/*underneath/*below/*beneath orders.' / 'They were stored *under/*underneath/below/*beneath decks.' / 'That last remark was *under/*underneath/*below/beneath contempt.' – Edwin Ashworth May 30 '17 at 18:55

As was said above, at the end of the day you do have to memorize expressions with prepositions because any rule you come up with will have numerous exceptions or else be arbitrary and illogical.

That said, between "under", "underneath", "beneath", and "below", I would say that "under" is by far the likeliest to occur in idiomatic expressions instead of literally describing positions in space. (However, it would be hard to describe the exact difference when it does concern spatial position!)

Its meaning in idiomatic expressions is often "subjected to", "in the presence of", or "undergoing".

Here's a tiny selection of idiomatic expressions that only take "under" out of that list:

This takes place under certain conditions.

She works well under stress.

I'm under pressure to succeed.

We're feeling under the weather.

Under no circumstances may you proceed.

He has fifty employees under him.
Here "beneath" would mean the same thing, "below" could work but might suggest that the employees are on the next floor down, and "underneath" suggests that he's standing on a pile of employees.

But rather than list many individual ones, compare the size of the following entries in the Free Dictionary's idiom section:

Under (long 3-column list of links)

Below (short 3-column list of links)

Beneath (a little over a dozen, all on one page)

Underneath (entry nonexistent)

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