By 2030, New well-paid jobs ______ available. ("will be" or "will have been"?)

I'm not really sure if will have been is the right answer here. I mean this isn't a completed action so wouldn't "will be" be a more fit answer?

  • Are you suggesting that you have been told that "will have been" is the correct answer? Is there any more context to the question?
    – SteveES
    Commented Jun 9, 2017 at 15:27
  • Related: ell.stackexchange.com/q/75100 (it may be a duplicate, but the answers there are not very convincing or thorough).
    – ColleenV
    Commented Jun 9, 2017 at 15:28

1 Answer 1


For your example you probably want to use will be. This refers to to a point in time which is in the future relative to now - in this case the year 2030.

Will have been refers to a time, which is in the past relative to a time in the future.

By 2030, new well-paid jobs will have been created in many sectors.

In the example above the jobs do not yet exist, implying future tense, but their creation will already have happened by the time we reach 2030, so we use future perfect tense.

  • The complete question was: By 2030, new well-paid jobs ...... available in Poland. It was a question in our English exams, most students think it's "will have been" and that's driving me crazy, since I've seen another example before: By 2030, English will be spoken by many people.
    – Omar
    Commented Jun 9, 2017 at 15:47
  • In that question, it should be "will be" not "will have been". "Will be spoken" is the same future tense as "will be available" but for different reasons. It's probably a little too complex for a comment but the short version is that in English, the 'passive voice' of verbs uses the verb "to be". Commented Jun 9, 2017 at 15:58

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