Preposition usually follows objective case but here in the following sentence, it is not observed. Why? Is there any other reason behind it?

I had just finished walking a half mile uphill from my home to his.


"His" is the possessive pronoun here that replaces a noun phrase "his home" and is the object of a preposition "to" in the objective case.

In English grammar, the object of a preposition is a noun, noun phrase, or pronoun that follows a preposition and completes its meaning. The object of a preposition is in the objective case.

Possessive pronouns replace nouns or noun phrases as either the subject or the object of a clause. Because the noun or noun phrase being replaced doesn't appear in the sentence, it must be clear from the context.

The noun, or in our case the noun phrase, being replaced is "his home"

In the noun phrase "my home" the possessive adjective is "my" and the noun is "home".

A noun phrase includes a noun: a person, place, or thing, and the modifiers which distinguish it.

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I had just finished walking a half mile uphill from my home to his.

The rule you are relying on is correct. A preposition takes a pronoun as a complement in the objective case. But, it's not "his" that's the object of the preposition. It's the noun phrase "his home."

The word "home" is omitted because it can be understood from the context.

I had just finished walking a half mile uphill from my home to his home.

The technical term we use here is fused head construction. Because the function of the possessive pronoun as a dependent is fused with the head function.

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