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I am extremely interested in obtaining such a position at your lab, where I can contribute to its research and development for new standards, and where I can gain extensive experience that is essential for a successful career.

..., where I can gain extensive experience which is essential for a successful career.

..., where I can gain extensive experience, which is essential for a successful career.

I suppose that is essential for a successful career is a nonrestrictive relative clause (?). If so, I think that which should be used, preceded by a comma.

My question: is the use of comma mandatory is this case? I am asking because I think that there will be many too many commas in the sentence..

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    You can reduce the clause without a comma "where I can gain extensive experience essential for a successful career" – SovereignSun Jul 6 '17 at 15:55
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To make a "which" clause non-restrictive, you must enclose it in commas. That's how we tell the difference.

That said, in this context it doesn't make much difference. I suppose that a restrictive clause would mean that any experience you gain or all the experience you gain is essential to a successful career, while a non-restrictive clause would mean that you will gain experience that is essential to a successful career, but you might also gain other, non-essential experience. It's not a distinction that anyone is likely to care about.

Note that in other cases this distinction is crucial. "The people in my town who are drug addicts make me worry" says that some of the people in my town are drug addicts, and these people make me worry. "The people in my town, who are drug addicts, make me worry" says that everyone in my town is a drug addict. That's a very different thing.

On a different angle, if you write a sentence that is punctuated correctly and you feel it has too many commas, the solution is not to drop commas that are required for correct grammar, but to either rephrase the sentence so that they are not necessary, or more likely, to break the sentence up into two or more shorter, simpler sentences.

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Using "which" with a comma would be quite acceptable.

You are concerned with the number of commas. Fix that by splitting the sentence.

I am extremely interested in obtaining such a position at your lab, where I can contribute to its research and development for new standards. I in this position I will be able to gain extensive experience, which is essential for a successful career.

However the "that/ , which" distinction is more subtle than some grammar books suggest. For example "I can gain the extensive experience that is essential for a successful career." would be acceptable (this is a restrictive clause). There are lots of examples of "which" being used in senses that are restrictive, and vice-versa. Your original sentence would be passed by many native speakers.

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