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I'm often confused the participle clause used in English grammar.

  1. He broke his leg and he went home. (= Having broken his leg, he went home.)
  2. He had broken his leg and he went home. (= Having broken his leg, he went home.)

Here my doubt is for both past simple and past perfect can we use perfect participle(having broken)??

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    Yes. For in a participle phrase, the perfect phrase will always be the one which happened first: Getting gome, I found the door opened - Two actions happening at the same time. Having gotten home, I found the door opened - After he got home or After he had gotten home, he found the door opened. – Davyd Jul 10 '17 at 11:09
  • Having broken his leg, he went home. If we seperate the above sentence into two simple sentences which one(sentence in past simple or past perfect) is correct? – nandy Jul 10 '17 at 14:21
  • Since there are two past actions in that compound sentence, you need to specify the action which occurred first; therefore, if the leg breaking occurred before he went home, then you could either say: He had broken his leg, then he went home. Past perfect implies one action that happened before another action, regardless of the sequence, the clause containing the past perfect auxiliar is the one which ocurred first. You could also say: After he broke his leg, he went home. In this case, you don't need to use the past perfect since "after" already implies that this action took place first. – Davyd Jul 10 '17 at 16:33
  • Having broken his leg, he went home implies either After he broke his leg, he went home or He had broken his leg, then he went home. – Davyd Jul 10 '17 at 16:36
  • Que1-When the sentences are with perfect participle (having+PP) can we use present tenses in main clause(know,has been worrying)? 1) Having lived there, he KNOWS its climate very well. 2) Having broken his leg, he HAS BEEN WORRYING all night. And Que2- Can we write present perfect in place of perfect participle? 1)Having broken his leg, he went home. = he HAS BROKEN his leg and he went home. I've read through some websites about perfect participle but got further confused.Please could you clarify my doubt? – nandy Jul 11 '17 at 2:45
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Nancy, since it will likely be a complex question for you to understand, I decided to write an answer about it:

What are Participles?

Participles are one of the Non-Finite Verbs which derive from forms of verbs; every verb has 5 forms, split into three categories:

  1. Base Form: (To do),

  2. Tense: Present (Do), Past (Did);

  3. Aspect: Present (Doing), Past (Done);

Participles derive from the aspect and base form since they are the unique ones which don't show tense and thus can't agree with person, tense or number..

Every non-finite verb (base form and participles) can perform three syntax functions:

Nominal, Adjectival and Adverbial.

In this answer, we will focus on Participles acting adverbially:

As adverbs, they can show a few semantic values: Result, Sequence of actions, Condition, Reason...

  • Having been a teacher for two years, he knows how to handle it - Reason;

  • Getting home, I found the door opened - Time sequence;

  • Eaten carefully, the food will not damage your health - Condition;

  • The cables from the Christmas tree fell down, causing the cars to be electrocuted - Result

As you can see above, they are likely to appear without an explicit subject; when such a thing happens, the subject is understood to be the same as in the matrix (main) clause:

Having been a teacher for two years, he knows how to handle it

means the same as:

Because he was a teacher for two years, he knows how to handle it;

and:

Eaten carefully, the food will not damage your health.

means:

If the food is eaten carefully, the food will not damage your health.

When the subject is non-explicit and you use a different subject from the matrix clause makes the so-called Dangling:

Having been a teacher for two years, the students will enjoy his class

The sentence above would imply that the students have been a teacher for two years, so be careful.

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