If you have not already referred to the report, then you should use the indefinite article A. This applies whether the author/publisher has issued only one report or many. You can describe the report as "recent" in both cases.
If you have already referred to this report earlier in your essay, then you should use the definite article The. In this case it is not necessary to describe it as "recent", unless you are distinguishing between two different reports by the same author/publisher.
When describing what the report suggests or shows or indicates etc, you should use the present tense when referring its implications for the present. This is clearly the case in your example. However, if you are referring to the historical context of the report, or an effect it had which no longer applies - eg how report affected people in the past - then you should use the past tense (suggested or showed or indicated etc).