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Can one say

1a. When you push someone else to commit a crime, as by persuasion or threats, you are partly responsible for what he has done.

1b. When you push someone else to commit a crime, such as by persuasion or threats, you are partly responsible for what he has done.

1c. When you push someone else to commit a crime, for instance by persuasion or threats, you are partly responsible for what he has done.

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2a. When anyone damages someone else's property, as by water or by fire, they will have to pay for the reparations.

2b. When anyone damages someone else's property, such as by water or by fire, they will have to pay for the reparations.

2c. When anyone damages someone else's property, for instance by water or by fire, they will have to pay for the reparations.

The first three are supposed to have the same meaning and the second three are supposed to have the same meaning.

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    The first group of three sentences have the same meaning, as do the second. – P. E. Dant Jul 20 '17 at 5:07
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In your examples

such as
such as by water or by fire

for instance
for instance by water or by fire

and by extension

for example
for example by water or by fire

may all be used interchangeably.

However using a bare

as
as by water or by fire

might possibly be better expressed as

as might be
as might be by water or by fire

as may be
as may be by water or by fire

to have the same interchangeability.

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