What does a "career move" mean? Does it usually mean a change of job? Can it mean an action in the career?
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If the expression is used alone(not in a context) as in your question, it makes people think a changing your existing job with a new one.
In this context move has two meanings: it is a transfer or change; and it is any sort of action that can be regarded as a strategic play, or possibly a misplay. It is
A career move is any sort of move related to one's career (a move of either type).
Telling sexual jokes was once commonplace in male-dominated workplaces, but today it is not a smart career move. [Nowadays, such behavior has bad consequences for your career, and it must be avoided.(move = strategic mistake; poor play)]
Getting a master's degree or Ph. D. can be a good career move; it can open doors for you.[(move = strategic play)]
The typical career move from what you're doing now would be to go into management, but I think you have what it takes to start your own business. [(move = change)]