Here are some words that we use in English for events:
Any social gathering, usually with invites.
This is typically used to refer to a child's party and is rarely used to refer to an adult's birthday. It can still be used however.
A "do", such as a birthday "do" is a more mature way to refer to an event. Is is more civilised and would perhaps refer to a "wedding do" or similar.
To "go out clubbing" is when you go to a night club.
A "sesh" is an informal word used by teenagers at the moment, to refer to any party where people are expecting to get drunk. You would not use it in a formal setting and I've never heard anyone over the age of 18 say it.
This is another more mature and formal name for a dinner or social event.
The word "disco" is rarely used, from my experience. The most common use of it that I've come across these days is a "school disco", which involves music, snacks, and lots of hyper kids running round a sports hall. The original meaning of "disco" from the 60s and onward is rarely used.
There is no explicit word for a "party for adults with loud music and getting drunk". I think the closest you'll get is using "Birthday party" for a kids' party, and using the word "Party" in context so that it is obvious you mean an adults' party.