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From this article on Bloomberg:

A BOJ spending gauge is also pointing to a recovery. Its real consumption activity index stood at 105.2 in June this year, compared with a record high of 108.6 in March 2014, the month before the sales-tax increase. BOJ Governor Haruhiko Kuroda has repeatedly said the labor shortage would push up wages and prices.

That’s not happening much yet, and the weak inflation is still welcomed by consumers, according to Junichi Makino, chief economist at SMBC Nikko Securities Inc. "The fact that prices are not rising much is improving consumer sentiment," Makino said.

The next test for the economy is for businesses to offer significant pay hikes, and for households to keep spending as consumer prices rise.

Does the bold phrase mean "The next test for the economy is whether businesses will offer significant pay hikes, and households will keep spending as consumer prices rise."?

2 Answers 2

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This is two separate details put together:

The test is for businesses and The test is to offer significant pay hikes.

The test is for businesses to offer significant pay hikes.

This is the same in the second sentence:

It is for households and aims to let them keep spending.

It is for householeds to let them keep spending.

This structure is used to explain the reason for something. You start by stating what "it" is, and then finish with "to [reason]".

If I wanted to say that I'd made some sandwiches for my sister because I didn't want her to miss lunch, i'd say:

"These sandwiches are for my sister to make sure she eats lunch."

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  • According to your explanation, it doesn't mean anything in my native language, @Aric Fowler. Sorry to say that.
    – haile
    Aug 15, 2017 at 15:48
  • @haile that's pretty funny actually, I tried at least xD
    – Aric
    Aug 16, 2017 at 7:48
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Consider the use of for in this sentence:

You've have known him a long time. I've only just met him this morning. For you to ask to borrow his car would not be a big deal because he knows you and trusts you. Don't you think it would be unusual for me to ask?

The object of for is a noun or pronoun in the role of subject of an infinitive clause. The noun or pronoun is presented as the actor performing the action of the non-finite verb that complements it. That it is a non-finite verb means it is not actually happening in time; rather it is a proposed or contemplated action, a possible action, the idea of the action. The entire complement of for, the subject + infinitive clause, is thus a kind of nominal. So we could paraphrase:

Your asking to borrow the car wouldn't be strange, since you have known him a long time.

for you to ask ~= your asking

{For you to ask} would be normal.

{For you to ask} is the nominal subject of "would be".

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  • Sorry to say this but I don't think "for" in your explanation is the same as "for" in my question.
    – haile
    Aug 15, 2017 at 15:54
  • Why don't you explain it to me then, @haile. I am all ears.
    – TimR
    Aug 15, 2017 at 15:57
  • "...whether businesses will offer significant pay hikes, and households will keep spending as consumer prices rise". That's what i think
    – haile
    Aug 15, 2017 at 15:59
  • Your question is Can anybody explain the structure “to be for somebody to do something” in this context, please?. How does that quote explain the structure? You're talking out your ____, dude.
    – TimR
    Aug 15, 2017 at 16:01
  • Because if i say "what does "to be for somebody to do something" mean?" it won't be accepted as a question. What I want to know is what that sentence means.
    – haile
    Aug 15, 2017 at 16:05

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