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  1. He telephoned the police yesterday.

Conveys the sense that the telephone was used, rather than different medium for communication, such as a personal visit or written (email).

  1. Can you show me the diamonds?

Emphasizes on the item, the diamond; it can be emerald, sapphire, ruby or what not.

  1. Paul has gone to the theatre.

Emphasizes that is Paul who went to the theatre, not his brother nor his sister.

  1. Have you heard that Marcella's won £50,000 on the lottery?

It emphasizes the amount of money that was won.

  1. I'm not doing anything this evening.

Stressing which part of the day, that the person speaking is not busy.

Are my explanations correct?

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Yes. You've got it exactly right. In fact, There's a funny quirk that uses this rule with some sentences in English.

If you take the sentence:

"I never said she stole my money."

and stress a different word every time, the meaning of the sentence will change. you can look at it a little more in-depth here.

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