They are all correct but they have slightly different meanings.
If the results have "come back", it suggests that you or someone else sent them off somewhere or to someone (or perhaps they were sent automatically) and that they have since been returned by that person or agency. For example, "have the results come back from the lab?"
If the results have "come up", this suggests that they have appeared on a display. "Have the results come up on the computer yet?"
If the results have "come out", this means they've been released or distributed. It suggests publication, though there are other interpretations. "The results will be in the newspaper once they've come out."
If the results have "turned up", it suggests they may have previously been mislaid or lost. "Those results we were looking for - have they turned up yet?"