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He lent me some money on the condition that I should return the same before November.

Before anyone marks it as possible duplicate of this question, I would like to add that that doesn't answers my question, that question talks about if it is colloquially acceptable to use the same, but I am not talking about colloquial usage, I am asking from strictly grammatical point of view. Moreover people over there have just given their 'opinions' but here I am sharing a excerpt from a renowned Author's dictionary.

My book (not written by native speaker but written after consulting 50+ native speakers work) says I need to replace the same with it because the same is always used as a adjective followed by a noun. He has cited the given below excerpt from H.W. Fowler's book.

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    You really only muddy the waters when you say, "I am not talking about colloquial usage, I am asking from strictly grammatical point of view." – J.R. Aug 22 '17 at 6:57
  • Just because the author uses 50 citations that doesn't mean the book is always correct. 'The same' as a pro-form can substitute for a noun phrase and adjective. – user178049 Aug 22 '17 at 8:42
  • @user178049 #1 No one said the author uses 50 citations, It's just mentioned in question that he referred to 50+ different books. #2 No one said the author is correct. – user212388 Aug 22 '17 at 8:46
  • @user212388 Okay, and you should buy a new book. – user178049 Aug 22 '17 at 8:47
  • I tend to agree with Fowler on this ("the same" usually comes across to me as jargon or worse), but it's not a grammatical point. It's a question of usage or style and ultimately subjective. – rjpond Aug 23 '17 at 20:10
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"The same" in Dictionary.com has two two suitable definitions as an adjective (if we consider it to be followed by a noun, which could have been omitted here: the same amount):

  1. identical with what is about to be or has just been mentioned
  2. agreeing in kind, amount, etc.; corresponding

But most surely it is a pronoun here:

  • the same kind or category of thing
  • the very person, thing, or set just mentioned
  • the same, in the same manner; in an identical or similar way

So it means, "He lent me some money on the condition that I should return an equal amount of money before November." (not different from that which he lent him)

Cambridge Dictionary Definition

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