There's a portrait of my mother in that room.
There's my mother's portrait in that room.
Are the both sentences the same in the meaning?
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Yes and no. Both the sentence do logically mean the same thing, but grammatically the second sentence can mean possesion (according to grammar rules) if followed by "of". Like: "It's my mother's portrait of me and my sister" - means that she made this portrait.
The first construction, that is "a portrait of" is more common.
Though both the sentences convey the same message, there is a negligible difference in using apostrophe over the 'of clause'.
I am not sure, but I feel that with animated subjects, the apostrophe is preferred or at least is more common.
There is my mother's portrait in that room (animated subject) but
car's colorcolor of car is red (inanimate subject).
[Note: Don't consider this as a concrete rule!]