"Some contemporary philosopher give us a modern teleological argument with a twist of probability."
With the context you have provided, I assume the meaning of the sentence is:
A few contemporary philosophers tend to give teleological argument, based on facts and figures backed by probability of their theories and views being valid, as well as the probability of certain events that supports the possible validity of their statements.
A 'teleological argument' is not something that can be proven, at the moment, but can be assumed to be true, or false. So a hint of probability will always play a key role in these statements.
By the phrase "twist of probability", the author implies it as 'a hint of probability'.