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I have learned that each sentence needs to have a subject. In the sentence below, I don't need the subject or I can't identify it there. So, I add the subject using there.

Is the first sentence correct or better is the second? If the first sentence is correct, what is the subject then?

In the table below is an error.

or

In the table below, there is an error.

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    Your first example has subject-dependent inversion where the noun phrase "an error" is the subject and the preposition phrase "in the table below" is a locative complement. – BillJ Sep 25 '17 at 11:46
  • So both sentences are correct? – trenccan Sep 25 '17 at 12:27
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    Yes, both are possible, though I prefer the second for reasons of style – BillJ Sep 25 '17 at 12:34
  • Wait.. what do you mean by 'error' here? A mistake? A mistake under a table? That doesn't make sense, IMO – user178049 Sep 25 '17 at 12:37
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    @user178049 That's what it says. – BillJ Sep 25 '17 at 12:50
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As BillJ mentions in his comment, the first sentence is an example of inversion where the normal order of subject-verb is reversed. In this case "an error" is the subject. The sentence could be rephrased as follows:

An error is in the table below.

The subject of the second example is the existential placeholder "there". This has no real meaning, because the pronoun "there" does not refer to any actual noun.

Both sentences are fine. I would prefer to use "there" -- but that's a question of style, not grammar.

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