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Ok, "For" has several meanings

-used to show purpose or function

a machine for slicing bread

Let's go for a walk.

Are you learning English for pleasure or for your work?

What did you do that for (= Why did you do that)?

-used to show a length of time

I'm going away for a few days.

That's all the news there is for now.

Now see this sentence "could you come down here for a second?"

I guess "For" here means "reason"

I would say "could you come down here for a second?" could mean "could you come down here for a short conversation with me?"

Or does it means "your coming action lasts a short time, not long""?

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Your second guess is correct; it means "for a length of time". The meaning of the sentence is something like "Could you come down here for a brief span of time?"

You are right that it can be a little ambiguous, because we use for to mean two different things. If the sentence was "Could you come down here for my birthday party?" it would obviously mean "for the purpose of my birthday party." But a second is a span of time, not a reason to do something.

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    I think they omitted "verb", "Could you come down here for a second?"="Could you come down here to talk with me for a second?" & "for a second" modifies "talk". It means "talk with me for a very short time" – Tom Sep 27 '17 at 4:18
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    @Tom - There's no verb missing from the original sentence, and no particular purpose is implied. The speaker could mean "Could you come down here to talk with me for a second", but he could also mean "Could you come down here so we can see your haircut for a second" or "so you can see this TV commercial" or anything. for a second does not specifically modify "talk" or any other verb, it modifies the entire preceding phrase. – stangdon Sep 27 '17 at 11:53

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