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Nine in 10 of the 1,288 girls and young women interviewed for the Girlguiding study said women are judged for their looks more than their ability, causing one in five girls as young as seven to go on a diet.

Does this "causing" mean, "which causes ...."

I mean like this.

This "which" means the fact that "women are judged for their looks more than their ability."

Is my understanding correct?

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    You are right. "Being judged ..." causes "one in five girls (as young as seven) to go on a diet". – Damkerng T. Dec 12 '13 at 9:05
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Almost! You've got the basic idea down, but it actually means which caused, not which causes. The study already happened, and 1 in 5 of those 1,288 girls in the study reported that they already went on a diet because of this societal pressure. It's implied that, if the study is an accurate sample of the population, 1 in 5 of all girls would, on into the future, also be caused to go on a diet. But the direct information is only that the girls in the study were caused to do so, not that the pressure causes all girls to do so.

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    +1 But I'm afraid that your understanding of what inferences may be drawn from the data is considerably more sophisticated than the author's. – StoneyB Dec 15 '13 at 13:40

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