Exercise is the only way to get a flat stomach after having a baby.

This sentence is from the Oxford Advanced Learner Dictionary.

Is ''after having a baby'' dangling participle or subjectless verbal noun?

  • 1
    Technically, yes, but in reality no. The gerund-participial clause "having a baby" doesn't have a subject, but it is understood as if it does, even if the subject may be understood to be "some arbitrary person". – BillJ Oct 9 '17 at 15:28
  • 1
    It's governed by the preposition "after", so it must be a NP, and there is no participle. – Colin Fine Oct 9 '17 at 17:20

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