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There are two sentences.

  1. The lateral fourth tarsalbone is constantly present and ,being much deeper than the others, intrudes into the middle tier.

    • First of all, is '' being '' gerund or present participle in this sentence ?
    • Can we think '' being much deeper than others '' as '' which are being much deeper than others '' Which refers to '' The lateral fourth tarsalbone ''
  2. The palpebral skin is thin and , being loosely attached, is thrown into folds when the eye is open.

    • The second one has a past participle. Likewise, can we say as '' which are being loosely attached ''

And '' commas '' .... Thank you...

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  • *Which are being X" turns the sentence into a passive construction, and is not the same as "being X". I think this is likely to be better explained on ELL. – Andrew Leach Oct 11 '17 at 7:41
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This is a tricky language question. English differs from many other languages in its usage of the verb ‘to be’.

First, in your sentence, ‘being’ is a participle. But you cannot say “... because it is being ...” in this context: you should just say “... because it is ...”. [There is a special usage of the word ‘being’ to refer to someone’s behaviour or intentions. So “You are being difficult/foolish/wise/funny...”]

“It is being attached” is a continuous present. It means the same as “(someone) is attaching it”. So the correct English for what you want to say is: “... it is attached...”. There is more to say

I shall have a look. Most grammars will have something. The main point is this. Most languages I know (other than English) have only one form of present tense, where English has two:
1) “I work in Paris.”
2) “I am working in Paris.
1) tells you the location of my job. So I could say this in August, when on holiday on the Côté Bleu. 2) tells you what I am doing now (as I speak). It is often called a ‘continuous present’. In French, 1 & 2 would both be expressed as « Je travaille à Paris ». To make it clear that you mean 1), you would have to say something like « Je suis en train de travailler à Paris ».

But the verb to be cannot work like that. I cannot be something without being it now.

EXCEPT that special usage of ‘being’ which almost the same as ‘behaving’: so “you are being foolish” is the same as “you are behaving foolishly”.

I shall look for a reference, but I hope this helps for now.

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