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For example, "pencils have a cap" means each pencil has a cap and a group of pencils has a cap? If so, how can I differenciate these two meaning naturally?????

  • Why are you using five question marks? One will suffice just fine. – J.R. Oct 20 '17 at 14:31
  • "Pencils have a cap." by itself is making a statement of belief (or based on actual knowledge) that pencils in general have caps. Another example, "Cars have a steering wheel." – user3169 Oct 20 '17 at 22:53
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Each of the pencils has a cap.

All of the pencils have a cap.

Note that "each of" is singular, but "all of" is plural. More information on which indefinite pronouns are singular and which are plural.

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