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Birds with the wrong types of beak would have gradually died out. On an island with different conditions a slightly different sort of finch would evolve. Over long periods of time the birds’ beaks became better and better adapted to their environment. The varying environments on different islands meant that the birds that thrived were the ones best suited to that place.

What does the word "varying" mean? I think it has the same meaning with "different", is it right?

thank you!

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Yes, it basically means different. If it were used as a verb, we could say,

"The weather on this island varies considerably from time to time. Sometimes it is really hot and then all of a sudden it can start snowing out of the blue."

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