It makes sense (except that I would say "discrimination against" rather than "discrimination of").
This sort of nominalisation quite often occurs and is easy to understand.
However, you have to be a bit careful. Referring to (for example) "gays" or "blacks" can come across as offensive. The preferred usage is adjectival ("gay people", "black people").
gay noun 10. Sometimes Offensive. a homosexual person, especially a male
black noun 21.b. Often Offensive. African-American.
No such usage notes are attached to the adjectival uses.
I'm guessing that transgender people would prefer to be called "transgender people" (or "people who are transgender") rather than "transgenders".