I think it depends how you use it. Your example
Yesterday, when you were shouting at your boss, you've gone too far and that's why he fired you.
is definitely not OK and you have to use 'went', not 'have gone'. However, you could rephrase it like this:
Yesterday, you were shouting at your boss. He's fired you because you have gone too far
Yesterday, you were shouting at your boss. He's firing you because you have gone too far.
The second example alters the meaning a little, though.
In short, I don't see how it's possible to use 'have gone' with 'fired', especially as you use 'when' in the sentence. 'When' introduces a specific past time whereas Present Perfect Simple is not specific about time unless you use 'for' or 'since'.