4

These were chosen by Renaissance teachers after much deliberation, for works written by and for the sophisticated adults of pagan Rome were not always considered suitable for the Renaissance young.

Is it preposition or conjunction?

I think it means because. But I'm confused why it has two because.

18

The first "for" does indeed mean "because". The second one, however, means "aimed at". So the sentence basically means this:

These [writings] were chosen by teachers in the Renaissance after a lot of thought and discussion, because works written by the sophisticated adults of pagan Rome [and] for an audience of similar sophisticated adults of pagan Rome were not always considered suitable for the Renaissance children.

"by and for [X]" uses the technique of ellipsis/elision, and is equivalent to "by [X] and for [X]". The phrase "the sophisticated adults of pagan Rome" is only written once, despite applying separately to both "by" and "for". That is, the works were written by the same general category of people that they were designed to be popular with.

This pattern can be used in a lot of cases; usually when you find that a single sentence contains the same rather long phrase two or three times, there's a way to use conjunctions or listing constructs to reduce the redundancy. Here, "and" is not necessary in the fuller sentence I wrote (although it is not wrong), but it is necessary in the shorter version.

7

The first "for" is a conjunction meaning "because". As a coordinating conjunction, "for" is used to lead an independent clause that functions to explain or provide reasons for the main statement.

Here is an example from MW for your convenience

the bill should be listed as paid, for I mailed it in on time

The second "for" in your sentence is a preposition that shares the constituent to the immediate right with another preposition that precedes it: "by". This is a typical example of right node raising (RNR).

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