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Even for native speakers, if they meet a new phrasal verb they have never used, is it difficult to understand what it means without any context?

For example, if you meet this phrasal verb 'inform on' without a context, you cannot understand what it means at all?

So, native speakers must learn phrasal verbs one by one to communicate with people in youth like non-native speakers?

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    Yes, this is true, but it's no different than acquiring any other idiomatic constructions, of which any language has thousands. For second language learners, idioms are hell. But I bet you never even think about all the idioms you use daily in your native language! – mamster Nov 19 '17 at 14:53
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Phrasal verbs without context are generally meaningless. I happen to know what "inform on" means, but let's say I came across something like "step up". I do know some possible meanings for this phrasal verb, but without context I couldn't be sure which was appropriate, or whether there might be some new, colloquial meaning, for example as a challenge to a fight:

Oh so you have something to say? Why don't you step up and say it to my face!

Of course, it's rare to see a phrasal verb used without any context. Usually you can make an educated guess.

  • Explaining with the example is helpful for me to understand how native speakers think, so I give you +1. – SinK Nov 19 '17 at 16:52
  • The phrasal verb meaning of 'step up' is strongly related to the ordinary meaning of step + up. Some phrasal verbs are less obviously related or not related at all. – Sydney Nov 19 '17 at 18:57
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    @Sydney without context or prior knowledge I really don't see how anyone could know that "step up" means "to challenge to a fight", or "to take responsibility". The nature of idiom is that it's usually related but not necessarily obvious. – Andrew Nov 19 '17 at 23:37
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"Inform on" only means one thing to me, which is slang:

A criminal might "inform on" another criminal.

Criminal A tells the police about the crimes of Criminal B, and in return, the police release Criminal A from jail. Criminal A is informing on Criminal B. Criminal A is an informant. (...a police informant.)

But YES, context is very very important. I always tell my young son, "I need more information!" when he give me half-sentences.


Edit:

@Andrew is right; I had assumed "inform on" was slang in that sense, but it is indeed in the dictionary:

in·form

verb - inˈfôrm/

  • give incriminating information about someone to the police or other authority.

  • "people called a confidential hotline to inform on friends, neighbors, and family members"

synonyms: denounce, give away, betray, incriminate, inculpate, report, finger;

...and is used more widely than I figured according to these Ngrams (which keep surprising and fascinating me!) And, "blow the whistle" is considerably more than "inform on" in the USA, but other way around in UK.

ngram usa

enter image description here

I guess I assumed it was slang because it's a phrase mainly used by criminals... :)

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    I don't think "inform on" is slang -- it's not listed as a colloquialism in any dictionary, and it seems like a standard expression to me. – Andrew Nov 19 '17 at 16:18
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    It's interesting! – SinK Nov 19 '17 at 16:54
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    @Andrew -- I stand corrected! I updated my answer. – ashleedawg Nov 19 '17 at 18:50

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