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I've searched on Google and on ELL for the difference between special and especial, so I already know the meanings of the words are similar, but I wasn't able to find a detailed explanation of the difference.

Also, no data even the merely similar questions in ELL; so I posed my question about what just out of my curiosity and thirsty of knowledge.

Can you please explain in detail the difference between special and especial?

  • @JeffMorrow Folks are expected to share what they found when they tried to find an answer to their question. It's a requirement because it ensures that the answers are focused on what will be most helpful and relevant. It can be challenging to ask a question in the language you're not fluent in - the more that the community understands about what the author already knows, how the question occurred to them, and why their attempt to find an answer wasn't fruitful, the more likely it is that the answers will help them and that both the question and answers will help future visitors. – ColleenV parted ways Nov 29 '17 at 4:24
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In most uses especial can be replaced with special without a change in meaning, although especial can also mean 'in particular'.

But there is one very important difference!

Especial is an extremely rare word in English. Although you can find examples of literate native speakers of English using it, they are hundreds of times less common than the usual word, special. It's almost always used by non-native speakers, and is basically never used in conversation. Why is that?

There are two reasons this word is used by non-native speakers:

  1. The adverb especially (meaning 'in particular') is quite common, so it's natural for a learner to believe that especial might be a common word, too. But although special and especially are both common, the adjective especial is rare.
  2. In some languages such as Spanish, especial is a common word. Speakers of languages such as Spanish may transfer this over into English, especially if they look the word up in an English dictionary and are able to find the word listed with the same meaning.

Because of this, it's usually best to treat production of especial in English as a mistake made by non-native speakers. If you're an English language learner, I would like to encourage you to use the word special instead.

It's true that it's technically a word in English, so if you really want to use especial in English, I won't tell you that you can't. But most uses of the word are now quite rare or are entirely archaic, and it will sound quite odd to most speakers. Using it repeatedly when special is expected will mark you as a non-native speaker, so if you want to speak English naturally, stick to special.

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