(“treating”) “He takes in sinners and eats meals with them, treating them like old friends…!”

And does “verb + ing” in the following examples belong to one of the three cases in the title question? Or other meanings?

  1. (fearing, knowing) He enfolds us with His arms, never fearing that He will become unclean; but knowing that we will become clean!
  2. (having) He is accurate with the longer clubs in his bag, having learned how to manage his normal 'fade' ball flight.
  3. (sipping, taking) Follow the direction of ushers to approach the Communion rail, kneel to receive the bread and wine, sipping from the common cup, or taking an individual glass of wine or grape juice.
  4. (baptizing) Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit,

1 Answer 1


There are two common ways of interpreting this. The first is that the two events happen at the same time. The other is that one event is part of the other.

He treats them like old friends while he is eating meals with them.

The above is the most common interpretation but one could also read this as follows:

He treats them like old friends by eating meals with them.

All of your examples except one have these basic interpretations

  1. "He never fears while he is enfolding us." and "He shows a lack of fear by enfolding us."
  2. Here "having" is a helping verb, so this is different. "He previously learned to manage his ball flight and therefore is now accurate."
  3. "Sip from the common cup while kneeling" and "receive the wine by sipping from the common cup"
  4. "Baptize them as you make them disciples" or "Make them disciples by baptizing them"

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