2
  1. He begins to know his surroundings.
  2. I have begun understanding this lesson since first session.

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  • They're both grammatical, but that's as far as it goes. They both sound like they would require some very special circumstances to be idiomatic, or else something a non-native speaker might say. – Robusto Dec 12 '17 at 3:55
  • @Robusto, in the 2nd example, you agree with using no article with "session"? It sounds wrong to me. – The Photon Dec 12 '17 at 4:08
  • @ThePhoton: It's a normal elision. You will often hear constructions like "I've had a headache since first period," etc. It's not much of a stretch to substitute session for period there. – Robusto Dec 12 '17 at 6:26
  • To this US English speaker, using session without an article sounds a little odd, but not impossible, for the reason Robusto says. – stangdon Dec 12 '17 at 13:47
1

He begins to know his surroundings.

is grammatically correct, but native speakers would not use this construction. In the present tense, He is beginning to know his surroundings would be normal phrasing.

That construction would normally only be found as a clause in a larger context, in a conditional or some other sentence with additional components, for example:

When he begins to know his surroundings, then ...
As he begins to know his surroundings, ...

The second sentence

I have begun understanding this lesson since first session.

is not grammatically correct - first session requires the definite article (the).

I have begun understanding this lesson since the first session.

However, this construction is also not normal phrasing. A more typical phrasing would be

I have understood this lesson since the first session.

but given that the question seems to be around the use of begin, to emphasize that the commencement of understanding of the lesson is linked to the first session, use the imperfect form began:

I began understanding this lesson in the first session.

-1

"Begin to do" is used for a specific situation.

"Begin doing" is usually used to make a general statement, in which the action that is done is repeated or regular or habitual.

So the first sentence would sound a little bit weird to me, because it miss the part that specify its meaning. For example "As he begins to wake up, he can hear people talking all around him."

And for the second one, it seems correct both grammatically and situationally

"I have begun understanding this lesson since first session". (= I began understanding the lesson as an activity or skill, that is, as something i did regularly and repeatedly since first session.)

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