Your sentence is grammatically incorrect. This is because that sentence is in present perfect tense, which is used to refer to an unspecified period of time in the past. However, ‘yesterday’, is a specification of time.
You can read up about present perfect tense here.
It should either be “I played football yesterday”, “I was playing football yesterday”, or “I have played football before”.
The first sentence is in simple past tense and it simply means that you started playing football yesterday.
The second sentence is in past continuous and it means that you started playing football before yesterday and was still playing football yesterday.
More information about the use of simple past and past continuous can be found here.
The third sentence is in the past perfect tense. It means that you have played football any time from when you were born up to now.