The short answer is that the suffix often changes the meaning and usage of the adjective, but not necessarily in any predictable way. For example, consider all the adjectives built from "sense":
While all of these are related, the meaning of each is somewhat different, and can only be learned from context. "Sensual" and "sensuous", for example, are slightly different in a way that many native speakers might not know:
Sensual (adj): relating to or consisting in the gratification of the senses or the indulgence of appetite
Sensuous (adj): of or relating to the senses or sensible objects, having strong sensory appeal
Some suffixes have consistent meaning, for example "-ized" generally means "became like" or "make like"
It is a sensational headline (it's a headline designed to arouse strong sensations)
It is a sensationalized headline (it's been made sensational by someone or something)
However this doesn't account for nuance. For example "idealized" suggests a false or unrealistic ideal.
She was an ideal leader (she represented the best qualities of a leader)
She was an idealized leader (she was believed to be an ideal leader, but this was more wishful thinking than reality)
So the solution is to read a lot to learn the meaning of adjectives like these in context, and pick up the patterns.
It's much too broad a question to list the meanings of every possible adjective suffix. Many of your examples are not correct -- modulation is a noun, pursuing year is not idiomatic, persuasion is a noun, and pursuing and persuasion are not related -- but if you have questions about any specific suffix, that we could probably answer.
List of common adjective suffixes and their meanings