I would like to use past sentences, however, I cannot figure the different between have/has been and the past verbs. We can write a past sentences using both (as I understand). For example, which one of the following sentences is correct?

1- The new method has been introduced in last chapter.


2- The new method was introduced in last chapter.

Could you please help me to understand the correct way to express my sentences.

Many thanks.


It just depends, Alice. Usually the present perfect ("has been") is used in a general sense in the past whereas the simple past ("was") is used for a specific time in the past or less general time in the past. In your situation, we know that it was introduced in the last chapter, so it should be No. 2:

  1. The new method was introduced in the last chapter. (correct except you forgot the article "the")

If one were speaking in the general sense, he would say it this way:

"The new method has already been introduced to us, Professor, so you don't have to show it to us again."

Notice that I have removed "in the last chapter"; therefore, the statement is no longer specific anymore; it's now speaking about a general time in the past, which is of little concern to the meaning of the sentence.

I hope this might have helped you out. Take care and good luck.

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