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I would like to use past sentences, however, I cannot figure the different between have/has been and the past verbs. We can write a past sentences using both (as I understand). For example, which one of the following sentences is correct?

1- The new method has been introduced in last chapter.

or

2- The new method was introduced in last chapter.

Could you please help me to understand the correct way to express my sentences.

Many thanks.

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It just depends, Alice. Usually the present perfect ("has been") is used in a general sense in the past whereas the simple past ("was") is used for a specific time in the past or less general time in the past. In your situation, we know that it was introduced in the last chapter, so it should be No. 2:

  1. The new method was introduced in the last chapter. (correct except you forgot the article "the")

If one were speaking in the general sense, he would say it this way:

"The new method has already been introduced to us, Professor, so you don't have to show it to us again."

Notice that I have removed "in the last chapter"; therefore, the statement is no longer specific anymore; it's now speaking about a general time in the past, which is of little concern to the meaning of the sentence.

I hope this might have helped you out. Take care and good luck.

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