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All the dictionaries I have say that the word "information" is usually used in combination with "on" or "about". However, when I Googled with the phrase "information of", there were a lot of hits. For example, I found the following sentence on the Texas Tech University website:

You cannot access your own medical information or medical information of your family, even if they have asked you to.

Is there any difference between "information on/about" and "information of"?

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They are completely different. With information, in the context you gave, of can only indicate ownership/possession. It is otherwise incorrect.

Information of your family

Means information belonging to your family.

To say information relating to something, we can use about or on. For example:

My family has a history of diabetes

This is information on my family or about my family. We wouldn't (in most contexts) say it is information of my family.

It's not common to talk about information belonging to someone in this way, so when you use "information of [someone]", it should be very clear that the information belongs to them in a special way, for example, it is a private record with protected status (like medical records). It may be better to use a clearer way to indicate possession in this case, for example:

information belonging to my family
my family's information

Another context where information might be followed by of could be when we are describing the information itself, for example in a phrase like

information of a sensitive nature

This does not mean information about "sensitive nature", but describes the information as sensitive (so it might need to be kept private). Similarly:

information of this kind is considered sensitive

This means the type of information we are talking about (such as medical records) is sensitive.

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