Your book is correct, and the sentences mean what it says they do.
But I can understand why this is confusing! Let's look at the parts that are different.
DDP challenges protecting inventor's ideas
DDP challenges to protect inventor's ideas
Usually, the gerund (verb-ing) and the infinitive (to verb) mean very similar things. For example, in
I like reading books
I like to read books
reading and to read mean almost exactly the same thing.
But to can also mean "for the purpose of" or "to achieve". For example, in
Sally exercises to stay fit
to stay fit means "for the purpose of staying fit".
In the first sentence, "DDP challenges protecting inventor's ideas", DDP is challenging something. What is that thing? Protecting, meaning the act of protecting the inventor's ideas. So DDP is challenging that act.
In the second sentence, "DDP challenges to protect inventor's ideas", we see "DDP challenges to", which means that DDP challenges for some reason, or to achieve some purpose. What is that purpose? To protect the inventor's ideas.