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One study shows babies can learn before they are born. (ORIGINAL VERSION)

One study shows babies can learn before having born. (VERSION I AM TALKING ABOUT)

Can I reduce this adverb clause like the way I used above?

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No, the verb to bear always has the baby as its object (the mother is the subject), so you can't grammatically say "a baby having born."

To bear in the sense of "to give birth to" is kind of a weird verb in that modern usage almost exclusively uses the passive voice (see the Usage Note about halfway down the page of the definition of bear). To use the passive voice you must have a conjugated form of the verb to be followed by the past participle of to bear, which is born.

In the simple present: "The baby is born," or "...they are born," as in your example.

You're trying to use the past perfect, with the auxiliary verb "have" turned into a gerund so that it can serve as the object of the preposition "before." To do that, you still need to include a form of to be:

One study shows babies can learn before having been born.

This preserves the passive voice by using the past participle of to be, which is been.

In a less artificial exercise, if you want to make the sentence more concise, you could drop the verbal phrase altogether and just use the noun birth (although that's not what I think you mean by a "reduction" of the adverb clause).

One study shows babies can learn before birth.

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