I can't find any supporting documentation, but as a native speaker, I would say they are not exactly interchangeable. I don't think anyone would say, "People have hope of change." It would also be odd to say, "Kevin hasn't given up hope for getting in shape," although that doesn't sound as wrong.
As a rule of thumb, it seems like the gerund makes the difference. I'd say constructions using a gerund typically take "hope of," while constructions with other nouns take "hope for." For example:
Do we have any hope of leaving soon?
Does she have any hope of taking first place?
I hope for prosperity.
She hopes for your happiness.
However, there's also a subtle difference in meaning. We sometimes use "hope of" to indicate ability and "hope for" to indicate desire. For example, this sentence actually has nothing to do with Kevin's hopes and instead means that it is not possible for Kevin to get in shape, even if he hopes or wants to:
Kevin has no hope of getting in shape.
I would speculate that the tie between "hope of" and "ability" has a lot to do with the tie between "hope of" and gerunds. Pure nouns don't connote any kind of ability, but verb-based gerunds do.