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suppose three of my friends and I have gone to a library and ask the librarian to give every one of us a book. So which of the following should I say?

1- Hi sir, Could you please give us each a book?

2- Hi sir, Could you please give us a book each ? 

I want to use each because if I say "Hi sir, Could you please give us a book?", he may think we all want only one book.

And one more question, if I take my friends' names and say in the following way, will that be correct?

3- Hi sir, Could you please give John, Peter, Kate and me a book each?

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  • The construction "give us a [thing] each" is more typically used with completely interchangeable objects: slices of cake, for example. It sounds unidomatic when used with "book," unless you're talking about identical copies of a textbook or some use of a book where you don't care that books generally have different contents (you were told to get a book, any book, no matter what the book is about). – Canadian Yankee Feb 12 '18 at 16:21
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Normally, you would say something like that using the construction each of where each is a determiner:

Hello, sir. Could you please give each of us a book?

However, note that each as an adverb as used in your first example is absolutely fine too:

Hello, sir. Could you please give us each a book?

In this situation, each modifies the verb give. It tells you in exactly what manner the action of giving all of your friends a book is going to happen. It's going to happen in such a manner that every single one of them will receive a book. A simple rule of thumb to remember is that adverbs tend to be positioned close to the verbs they modify. That's why, in this case, each placed at the end of the sentence simply won't work—it's placed too far from the thing that it's supposed to go with.

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