The [Wikipedia article on phrasal verbs] (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phrasal_verb) lists "teeing off on" as a "particle-prepositional verb". I would think this would also apply to "run out on" and similar constructions. The article also says:
The terminology of phrasal verbs is inconsistent. Modern theories of syntax tend to use the term phrasal verb to denote particle verbs only; they do not view prepositional verbs as phrasal verbs. In contrast, literature in English as a second or foreign language ESL/EFL, tends to employ the term phrasal verb to encompass both prepositional and particle verbs.
The article emphasizes that phrasal verbs are non-compositional, that is, that their meaning cannot be accurately derived from the meanings of the individual words. In this regard, they are like idioms.
In the examples in the question, I do not think "on" indicates the physical presence of the person denoted by the prepositional phrase headed by "on". Indeed, neither phrase clearly indicates that "me" is physically present. Rather, "on" indicates the person (or thing) affected by phrasal verb, its object.
Other phrasal verbs with on:
- Turn on (to suddenly attack or become hostile, having previously been friendly)
- wimp out on (as in "don't wimp out on me") (to give up prematurely or overly easily)
- beat up on (to attack, usually physically)
- gang up on (to band together in order to attack)
- give up on (as in "I ought to give up on him") (to stop working for or expecting good things of)