I see examples of both on the web.

Think You Don't Need Houseplants? Science Says Different (Forbes)

You say he's just a friend, but your voice says differently (ScienceDaily)

Life is pain, Highness. Anyone who says differently is selling something. (The Princess Bride (1987))

By the same token, should I say show different or show differently to mean show otherwise?

That research shows different.

That research shows differently.

  • 2
    There's a trend in some circles towards using adjectives as adverbs as in to win big. The Forbes quote might be an example of this. Equally it might simply be a headline abbreviation of Science says (something) different. Ditto That research shows different (results). Mar 28 '18 at 21:52
  • "Science says different" ==> "Science says something different". Mar 28 '18 at 22:05
  • Reminds me of the old Apple slogan "Think Different" by TWBA (who also did Apple's "1984" and "Get a Mac" campaigns). Just as grammatically incorrect in 1997 as it is today.
    – m_a_s
    Mar 28 '18 at 22:44

Grammarbook.com Describes the role and difference between adjectives and adverbs quite well.

The first sentence reads like a headline---and newspapers/broadcast media are notorious for abusing grammar to fit things into a headline, to be terse, or to be catchy. If you were writing formally, you may want to say something else---at least use an adverb like "differently". Also consider that science doesn't say anything, but scientists speak volumes. Similarly, movie scripts usually depict colloquial speech, often with poor grammar.

Regarding your query about the "... shows different" versus "... shows differently", consider rephrasing it to "... shows something different" or "... shows a different result".

Incidentally, Editage.com has a neat article on when to use "show", "reveal", or "indicate" in scientific publications.

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