Do these sentences have the same meaning and can they be interchanged?
Workers have recently worked on the system.
Workers have recently been working on the system.
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No, not at all. The following link describes it well with diagrams:
Workers have recently worked on the system. The workers have finished their task and at the time this statement was made, were no longer working on the system.
Workers have recently been working on the system. The workers may have still been working on the sentence AT THE TIME this statement was made.