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And if it is correct, can someone explain to me the grammar. Like, is it present continuous or something (grammar isn't my strong suit).

  • Please ask only one question at a time. You can ask a separate question about has gotten better and is getting better. – Tᴚoɯɐuo Apr 7 '18 at 12:13
  • i edited the question – strawberries Apr 7 '18 at 13:36
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When we ask, "How did {something} go?" the "something" must have finished. It cannot be ongoing. The simple past did go is used with things that happened in the past.

If the surgeon is operating on one of the organs of your body, and you are lying unconscious on the operating table, the nurse does not ask, "Doctor, how did the operation go?" because the surgical procedure is not finished yet. The nurse can ask "How is the operation going?"

But if the "job" is a completed task then your question is valid. Let's say the job was replacing the roof of a house, which people in that trade call "a job".

We have a big job tomorrow. We have to replace the roof of an old mansion.

Then you can ask:

How did your job go? Were there any surprises? Did the decking need to be replaced?

But if you're asking someone at dinner how they fared at work:

How did your day go?

There, your day means "your work day". The work day is over. It is evening now.

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It's correct.  It's past indefinite, also called "simple past" even though there is good reason to avoid that label.  Verb constructions have properties, such as tense, aspect, and mode.  In this clause, the verb construction is "did go". 

The "did" appears before the subject "your job".  This arrangement is called subject-auxiliary inversion, and it's part of what marks this clause as a question.  We've established the interrogative mode. 

In any finite verb construction, there is exactly one verb that marks tense, that takes either a past-tense form or a present-tense form.  When there is only one verb in the construction, it's quite easy to find that verb: My job goes well or my job went well.  These are the simple cases, in the sense that it only takes one word to complete the verb construction. 

When there is more than one word in the finite construction, the verb that marks tense is the first.  In this example, that's "did".  This is the past-tense form of the verb "to do".  We've established the past tense. 

English marks two properties that are generally considered aspects: continuous and perfect.  The continuous aspect requires an -ing form, traditionally labeled the present participle.  The perfect aspect requires an -en form, traditionally labeled the past participle.  For the verb "to go", those forms are "going" and "gone". 

In your example question, neither participle is included.  We have only the past-tense "did" and the bare infinitive "go".  With nothing marking the continuous aspect and nothing marking the perfect aspect, there is nothing marking any aspect.  The aspect simply isn't marked.  We've established the indefinite aspect. 

There is also a property called voice, with the values active and passive.  Those values make sense when describing transitive verbs.  The verb "to go" is intransitive.  We might consider this voice to be active, or we might consider this clause to have no voice.  In either case, it would make no sense to describe this construction as passive

Your example question is in the interrogative mode, the past tense and the indefinite aspect.  For short, it is a (voiceless or possibly active) interrogative past indefinite construction.  For shorter, it is a past interrogative or a simple past. 

 

There is such a thing as the present continuous:

How is your job going?

In this case, the verb with tense is the "is", which is a present-tense form of "to be".  The only other verb is an -ing form, which marks the continuous aspect. 

It is as easy to find present continuous statements as it is to find present continuous questions:

My job is going well.

Here, the mode is indicative, the tense is present, the aspect is continuous

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To add on to Tᴚoɯɐuo's answer: It is grammatically correct. Whether it is idiomatically correct depends on what you are trying to say.

If, as Tᴚoɯɐuo says, you have a particular limited-term job that is complete (at least for the day) then you can say,

How did your job go?

or, assuming we both know which job you've been working today:

How did the job go?

In the same way, suppose I go on a business trip to meet with a client. When I get back my wife might ask:

How did your trip go?

or

How did your meeting go?

However, if you just want to ask someone about their regular job, which they go to every working day, it would be more idiomatic to ask something like:

How was work?

Did you have a good day at work?

Or, more generally:

How was your day?

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