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Can I speak so?:

  1. Who sits near you? - Near me sits a boy....
  2. Near the shed was flying a swallow when I looked into the window
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    The natural order in English is SOV (Subject - Verb - Object), and we usually put any adverbial element (such as near me) after the verb it applies to. Your example #1 is thus a stylised "inversion" of the natural sequence A boy sits near me, which would normally only be used in poetic/literary contexts. – FumbleFingers Reinstate Monica Apr 9 '18 at 13:02
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    1) sounds like poetry or literature. Not what people say usually. 2) same thing. Also, we say: Can I speak like this? Not "so", fyi. – Lambie Apr 9 '18 at 16:22
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Your sentence construction is grammatically correct, though maybe a bit stilted and algorithmic.

Who sits near you?
Near me sits a boy.

Is correct and echoes the structure of the question in reverse, however, better might be

A boy sits near me.

In your other example

Near the shed was flying a swallow when I looked into the window

the "swallow" is probably of main importance, and so should be moved to the front, and of second importance was what it was doing

A swallow was flying near the shed, when I looked out the window.

Keep in mind, you look "out" a window on the wider world, you look "into" a window to see a smaller space, eg a room.

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Near me sits a boy...

is grammatical and you might very well find it in a tale, though you're far more likely to hear the following in casual conversation

A boy sits near me.

The same is true with

Near the shed was flying a swallow

That phrase could be found in a tale too, and in casual conversation you would be far more likely to hear

A swallow was flying near the shed.

I suppose the reason such phrases appear in tales is that the tale-teller has a heightened concern for the flow of information. Consider the difference here:

In the back of the house there was an old shed. Near the shed was flying a swallow.

In the back of the house there was an old shed. A swallow was flying near it.

Near the shed is a segue when the sentence begins with it. The second version without the segue is natural and conversational. The first, with the segue, is more formal in its presentation of detail.

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