Nadal was born in Manacor, Spain, in 1986 to a family of athletes whose physical talent he inherited.
This sentence contains the relative clause "whose physical talent he inherited."
The antecedent of the genitive relative pronoun whose is the directly preceding noun phrase "a family of athletes".
The noun phrase "whose physical talent" is the direct object of the verb "inherited". We can see the corresponding non-relative clause if we replace the genitive relative pronoun whose with the genitive personal pronoun their and adjust the word order accordingly:
he inherited their physical talent
In the relative clause, the direct object "whose physical talent" comes before "he inherited" because the relative word in a relative clause always comes first, regardless of its role in the clause.
Another example would be the change in word order between an independent clause like "I saw my best friend yesterday" and a relative clause in a complex sentence like "My best friend, who(m) I saw yesterday, doesn't live in my neighborhood." Both "my best friend" and "who(m)" play the role of the direct object of the verb "saw" in these sentences.
If the relative word is part of a noun phrase or a prepositional phrase in the relative clause, the entire phrase containing the relative word may be put at the start of the relative clause: this is called "pied-piping". The sentence that you mention is an example of this phenomenon.
The word "from" is not involved anywhere, and it cannot be added to the sentence.