On my bike, I have enjoyed the beautiful weather, endured freezing cold, and have been caught in sudden cloudbursts.


B. caught

C. been caught

D. have caught

Here, A and D can be easily eliminated because of subject-verb agreement. Moreover, I noticed that we need to use past tense to maintain parallelism, so I picked B. However, the correct answer is C.

Why are we using "been" here? Please explain parallelism going on with this question.

  • 1
    The sentence could remain unchanged and still be acceptable. But it's not essential to repeat "have" in the final coordinate. The sentence has three present perfect clauses as complement of "have": "... I have [enjoyed the beautiful weather], [endured freezing cold], and [been caught in sudden cloudbursts]. That the third coordinate is passive makes no difference.
    – BillJ
    Apr 14, 2018 at 7:29
  • @BillJ, that catch is transitive has to do with answering OP's specific question, which is why "been" needs to be used.
    – The Photon
    Apr 14, 2018 at 15:55

2 Answers 2


Catch is almost always a transitive verb. Whenever you use it, there must be an object that gets caught.

Often, we used catch with the passive voice:

I was caught speeding and had to pay a fine.

My boss was caught sleeping at his desk.

In this case, the phrase being used is "I have been caught in the rain". This is a way of saying "I have been outside when it started raining" and it usually implies you weren't prepared for rain (for example, you weren't wearing a raincoat).

"I have caught in the rain"(*) is not a meaningful sentence or phrase in standard English.

Edit: There are a few intransitive uses of catch, like an engine that is having trouble starting can be said to "catch" when it finally does start. But these uses are fairly few and don't apply here.


I agree with the previous answer in terms of the transitive verb. But there is another piece to the analysis of parallelism in this example—and why the correct answer is been caught and not have been caught. (Despite what you stated, it's not actually wrong because of subject-verb agreement.)

The sentence could be written as:

On my bike, I have enjoyed the beautiful weather, have endured freezing cold, and have been caught in sudden cloudbursts.

All three items now use have, so this is a good example of parallelism.

By contrast, it could be written in the form of a vertical list.

On my bike, I have:
  * enjoyed the beautiful weather,
  * endured freezing cold, and
  * been caught in sudden cloudbursts.

Here, none of the items use have, so this, too, is a good example of parallelism.

You might look at the version that's marked as correct and wonder why the first item uses have while the other items don't. But you can consider it as if the have that's there belongs not to the first item but to the set of all items. Or you can think of it as a form of elliptical construction, where it's omitted from the other items but its presence is still implied.

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